2.4.1 Lack of Success in Regional Integration Efforts in East Africa..... 38 . Although based on encouraging market forces and foreign investment, this has a considerable role for governments and includes some seemingly positive economic, security and 'governance' elements. Contrary to the simplistic free trade formulae being pushed by the World Bank and in the WTO, trade agreements between the partners within a region should be negotiated to encourage productive development and stimulate constructive trade between them... and in preference to powerful international traders. These would be public-public partnerships, that is between governmental and parastatal enterprises and institutions and public trusts, and cooperatives, worker/ employee collectives, community-based, mutual aid, and other forms of popular collective self-organisation and joint endeavours. Intervening for or against these and other similar regional programs in Africa, there are many international political and economic forces actively promoting 'open' or liberalised regions. You have reiterated that regional bodies play a bigger role in Africa’s development. There are, however, many overlapping 'regional integration' groupings in Africa pursuing differing and even competing programs, particularly in the trade sphere. More fundamentally, different modalities and rates of integration would also have to be adopted in view of the very unequal levels of economic development between the small and/or poorer least developed countries (LDCs) and other larger and/or relatively stronger 'developing' countries in Africa. This requires special and differential treatment between countries with such uneven economic, technical and organisational capacities, in order that the weaker are not disadvantaged in their economic interactions with stronger. The strategies are underpinned by investments in regional infrastructure especially energy, transport, water and information and communications technology (ICT). This would entail the democratic negotiation and creation, the co-existence and coordination of varying but overlapping sub-groupings of countries, where demanded, in different sectors and spheres of cooperation and within differing frameworks and timetables. That way we boost intra-Africa trade. But to be appropriate, effective and 'owned' by all the participating governments and their populations, such arrangements can only be achieved through processes of giveand-take in democratic and accommodating negotiations. The International Transport is critical to the attainment of the Millennium Development Goals (United Nations) and the objectives of the Regional Economic Integration in Africa. Journal of Common Market Studies, 32: 45- 69 Mcdonald A.S.K., (2005). What do you mean by that? The AU has really made great strides, particularly in the continental free trade area. This was set up in 1991 as a long-term multilateral development project based on cross-border cooperation in all aspects of the economies and societies of the member countries. Overlying all of these programs are the more recent proposals in the New Partnership for Africa's Development (NEPAD) for a comprehensive program for the whole continent. the words? We target least developed countries. Regional Integration in Africa: The Case of Ecowas. It examines the many issues confronting the people of Africa, its leaders and its international partners: economic reform, debt, education, health, women's advancement, conflict and civil strife, democratization, aid, investment, trade, regional integration, rural development and many other topics. The Treaty establishing the East African Community then names as subsequent stages of EAC integration the establishment of a Common Market, then a Monetary Union and ultimately a Political Federation. Ibrahim Mayaki, chief executive officer of the the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), which is currently transforming into the African Union Development Agency (AUDA)—the implementing arm of the AU. In Southern Africa, the regional integration grouping is the thirteen-nation Southern African Development Community (SADC). Rather, in order to accommodate national political and economic particularities in certain sectors, and even local social and cultural specificities, regional integration might have to reflect a degree of 'variable geometry' with regard to participation in certain agreements. A number of the countries in both these groupings are also members of the Common Market of Eastern and Southern Africa (COMESA). After independence regional integration became a pillar of Africa’s developmental strategy. But the now-hegemonic or dominant view at different levels of power and spheres of influence, in Africa and internationally, is that 'Regional Integration is A Good Thing'. cal means of popular containment or control. We said, “OK, let’s set a target of 1 million jobs over the next three years.” But as you know governments do not create jobs; the private sector creates jobs, and the private sector in Africa is dominated by small and medium enterprises (SMEs). Such aims and methods cannot and will not be promoted by 'market forces' which function according to different business profitability' criteria and narrow time-frames and through competitive not cooperative processes. These are excerpts: Africa Renewal: What are the main differences between AUDA and NEPAD? It is of particular importance important to intensify African competitiveness in the regional and Global Markets by reducing the high cost of doing business in Africa , exacerbated by deficiencies in the transport infrastructure. When several regions share a common market, there are no restrictions on immigration and cross-border investment. At one level, nationalism has been deliberately fostered by the ruling elites as part of their ideological and politi These would include financial transfers (plus profit re-investment), technology and management skills transfers, labour training and rights, and health and environmental protections, as well as local production inputs and product-sourcing to create backward and forward linkages with domestic producers. Such practices would all contribute towards higher levels, more evenly spread and equitable development across the region. It is a direct result of this that regional integration is required in Africa, as this will help with upgrading economic development (Saku, 2016:2-3). of our rural population in Africa has no access to electricity. The infrastructure of the colonial period still stands in most of Africa, albeit modernised. The African Development Bank tells us that 60% of our SMEs have less than 20 employees and the other 40% have less than 10. Regional integration is a process in which countries enter into a regional agreement in order to enhance regional cooperation through regional structure and rules. Developmental trade integration would include trade-promoting infrastructural means but also targeted policy measures. That’s where our role becomes important. Equity-and-stability is particularly important between closely inter-linked countries where uneven development or under-development of some to the advantage of others has often been deliberately engineered by colonial authorities and business interests. In an interview with Africa Renewal’s Kingsley Ighobor in New York Dr. Mayaki spoke on AUDA’s role in Africa’s development agenda and discussed regional integration and his agency’s plan to create a million jobs. Clearly also, the public sector and public investment will lead the way in such developmental processes, although questions remain as to how, on what bases - or whether - the skills and/or resources of national or regional private enterprise could be marshaled towards such aims in joint public-private projects. The Strategic Aims of Regional Cooperation and Integration in AfricaDot KeetAlternative Information and Development Centre AIDC Regional Briefing 1/2004. The more buy-in you have in the design of a project, the less resistance you have during implementation. “Pan-Africanism, as an expression of continental identity and coherence, distinguishes regional integration in Africa from other regions in the developing world” (McCarthy, 1995, p. 14). You can have the big strategy, but in terms of implementation, in terms of innovation, it must come from the bottom. Evaluation of the Regional Integration Strategy and Operations of the African Development Bank in Central Africa, 2011-2016 Summary report Glossary vii Regional operation A project taking place in two countries or more with benefits superior to indi- There is now a division of labour between the AU Commission, the Regional Economic Communities and AUDA in implementing the AU’s strategic frameworks at the national and regional levels. In the case of Southern Africa this relates also to the human and economic costs incurred by neighbouring countries in the struggles against colonialism and especially against apartheid. — Ibrahim Mayaki, chief executive officer of the the New Partnership for Africa’s Development (NEPAD), which is currently transforming into the African Union Development Agency (AUDA)—the implementing arm of the AU. They can, for a start, be eroded through the greater freedom of movement of African people. For more than 40 years, TNI has served as a unique nexus between social movements, engaged scholars and policy makers. AUDA will also focus on resource mobilisation and the connections between sectors to avoid a siloed approach, which as you know is a key aspect of the Sustainable Development Goals (SDGs). 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