The risk of complications increases with the severity of the trauma; however even mild traumatic brain injury can result in disabilities that interfere with social interactions, employment, and everyday living. [1], Any damage to the head or brain usually results in some damage to the vascular system, which provides blood to the cells of the brain. [12], Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive, neurodegenerative disease characterized by dementia, memory loss, and deteriorating cognitive abilities. TBI can result when the head suddenly and violently hits an object or when an object pierces the skull and enters brain tissue. Traumatic Brain Injury Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a disruption in the normal function of the brain that can be caused by a blow, bump or jolt to the head, the head suddenly and violently hitting an object or when an object pierces the skull and enters brain tissue. [27], Parkinson's disease and other motor problems as a result of TBI are rare but can occur. Brain death is the lack of measurable brain function due to diffuse damage to the cerebral hemispheres and the brainstem, with loss of any integrated activity among distinct areas of the brain. Magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) may be used after the initial assessment and treatment of the TBI patient. Make sure the surface on your child's playground is made of shock-absorbing material (e.g., hardwood mulch, sand). Infections within the intracranial cavity are a dangerous complication of TBI. Hormonal problems can result from dysfunction of the pituitary, the thyroid, and other glands throughout the body. 1. Localized injuries may be associated with neurobehavioral manifestations, hemiparesis or other focal neurologic deficits. [18] Problems that may persist for up to two years after the injury include irritability, suicidal ideation, insomnia, and loss of the ability to experience pleasure from previously enjoyable experiences. More severe impacts or the forces associated with rapid acceleration/deceleration may not be absorbed by this cushion. Drugs that can be used to decrease ICP include mannitol or barbiturates. Tinnitus, a ringing or roaring in the ears, may occur. For example, people who have a particular form of the protein apolipoprotein E (apoE4) and suffer a head injury fall into this increased risk category. Fluid and hormonal imbalances can complicate the treatment of hypermetabolism and high ICP. Most patients with severe TBI, if they recover consciousness, suffer from cognitive disabilities, including the loss of many higher level mental skills. For moderate to severe cases, the gold standard imaging test is a computed tomography (CT) scan, which creates a series of crosssectional X-ray images of the head and brain and can show bone fractures as well as the presence of hemorrhage, hematomas, contusions, brain tissue swelling, and tumors. The body can repair small blood vessels, but damage to larger ones can result in serious complications. [1], Fluid and hormonal imbalances can also complicate treatment. Damage to one of the major arteries leading to the brain can cause a stroke, either through bleeding from the artery (hemorrhagic stroke) or through the formation of a clot at the site of injury, called a thrombus or thrombosis, blocking blood flow to the brain (ischemic stroke). Therapists help the patient adapt to disabilities or change the patient's living space to make everyday activities easier. This condition can develop during the acute stage of TBI or may not appear until later. Some TBI patients develop tinnitus, a ringing or roaring in the ears. Language and communication problems are common disabilities in TBI patients. New Engl J Med. Medline [1], Another common problem is spasticity. Neuroskills pharmacology, research articles, common assessment tools, resource sites . Sometimes, health complications occur in the period immediately following a TBI. Speech is often slow, slurred, and garbled. Parts of the brain that can be damaged include the cerebral hemispheres, cerebellum, and brain stem (see brain damage). Speech is often slow, slurred, and garbled. Intra-axial bleeds are further divided into intraparenchymal hemorrhage which occurs within the brain tissue itself and intraventricular hemorrhage which occurs in the ventricular system. Symptoms include headache, dizziness, memory problems, trouble concentrating, sleeping problems, restlessness, irritability, apathy, depression, and anxiety. [10] Post-traumatic amnesia (PTA), a confusional state with impaired memory,[11] is characterized by loss of specific memories or the partial inability to form or store new ones. Two common hormonal complications of TBI are syndrome of inappropriate secretion of antidiuretic hormone and hypothyroidism. Be